Kidneys are pea-shaped organs just 4-5 inches long, located in the back, one each on the side of vertebral column are responsible for carrying out mammoth task of blood filtration. In every minute, millions of nephrons eliminate metabolic waste products from 1 litre of blood. This waste product is nothing but ‘urine’ which contains urea, uric acid, creatinine and excess water.These vital pair of organs also releases an enzyme called renin which controls PH level, volume & pressure of the blood. It also regulates the electrolytes balance.
What is a Kidney Transplant?
means implanting healthy kidney
into the patient’s body from live or cadaver donor through a surgery. Kidney dialysis
is not required after the implantation because the patient feels better with more energy. Before implanting extensive blood tests are done on both donor and recipient because tissue and blood group should match. If both the kidneys fail, then there is a need of only one kidney transplantation.
Kidney transplant is done for
- Kidney or renal failure
- Stage 5 chronic kidney diseases
- End-stage renal diseases
Signs and Symptoms of Decompensated Kidney Disease
that are seen in both adults and children are:
- Swollen ankles
- Eye puffinesss
- Bad breathe or urine-like odour
- Loss of appetite
- low amount of urination
- Legs muscle cramps
- Pale dry & itchy skin
- High blood pressure
- In children poor growth
Types of Kidney Transplants Surgery
Yes. In India, there are different kinds of surgeries available
for an affordable cost. The different types of kidney transplants Surgery are:
- Laparoscopic Nephrectomy
- Open Nephrectomy or Radical Nephrectomy
- Simple Nephrectomy or open kidney Nephrectomy
In Laparoscopic Nephrectomy
, a couple of inches long several incisions are made in the abdomen. A laparoscope and other surgical instruments are inserted via these incisions. The blood vessels and ureter are clamped off with the help of surgical instrument. Kidney is detached from the surrounding tissue and removed through the incision below the belly button.
In Open Nephrectomy or Radical Nephrectomy
, surgeon makes an incision up to 8-10 inches long in abdomen and below the ribs or right over the lowest ribs. Surrounding Tissue ad muscles are cut and moved, sometimes surgeon may also remove rib to do the surgery. Ureter and blood vessels are clamped and the adrenal gland and some lymph nodes are removed. The entire kidney is removed in this surgery. Later incision is closed with stitches and stapled.
In Simple Nephrectomy or Open Kidney Nephrectomy
, surgeon makes an incision up to 10 inches long in abdomen and below the ribs or right over the lowest ribs. Surrounding Tissue ad muscles are cut and moved, sometimes surgeon may also remove rib to do the surgery. Ureter and blood vessels are clamped and kidney is carefully removed. Sometimes just a part of kidney which is diseased is removed, and later the incision is closed with stitches and stapled.
Who are The Best Candidates for a Kidney Transplant?
Patient needs to understand that it takes commitment and willingness to accept this lifelong responsibility. Kidney Transplant is mostly done on the patient suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
or has one or both failed kidneys. It is not mandatory to be on dialysis to receive a kidney transplant. The other factors may include overall health or any associated risks if candidate is suffering from any heart disease, cancer or infection.
Who Are Not Candidates for a Kidney Transplant?
The candidate shouldn’t have:
- Any heart, lung or liver diseases
- TB or bone infection
- Smoking, alcohol or drug abuse
- Any recent cancer history
- Other life-threatening diseases
- Any problem in taking lifelong medications
How do I start the Process of Getting a Kidney Transplant?
Please meet an expert nephrologists or doctor before getting a transplant. Doctor will prescribe you certain process, medical test & evaluation and medicines before the transplant. You may need to follow a special diet and stop smoking and alcohol consumption. An exercise program may be recommended by medical team to keep weight in check. Certain medical test & evaluation prescribed are tissue and blood matching test, blood tests, skin tests, heart like EKG & echocardiogram.
Usually transplant is successful but some may face issues like:
- New kidney rejection
- Anaesthetic reaction during surgery
- Donor kidney Failure
What is Kidney Transplant Rejection?
Kidney Transplant Rejection is a condition when body’s defense system recognizes newly introduced kidney or tissue as ‘foreign invader’. This immune system triggers into action to kill the transplanted tissues which eventually makes the organ or tissue unable to function. Immune no suppressant medicine is given to suppress the immune system but longer intake makes it hard to fight off all types of infections.
What are Advantages of Kidney Transplantation?
The advantages of Kidney Transplantation are:
- It is less expensive than dialysis
- No longer dependency on dialysis
- Anaemic condition during dialysis is reversed
- Can return back to normal routines
- Fluid and diet restrictions are relaxed
- Increase in sexual desire and fertility may occur
Kidney Transplant Guidelines in India
Kidney comes from live or cadaver donor for transplantation. Since life can sustain on one kidney, donors can lead normal lives with the other kidney. By defining brain death of a person to a certain degree in the Human Organ Transplantation
Act 1994, process of receiving an organ from cadaveric donors is largely simplified now; although the wait is still inevitable.
Kidney transplantation must fulfill the following criteria
- Donors should be between the age of 18 to 55 years
- They should not have any kidney related illnesses
- They should not suffer from high blood pressure, diabetes or cardiac problems
- Donors should not have any hereditary kidney problems
- Recipients should be below 60 years of age
- Patients’ blood group should be compatible with that of the donor
- Living donors should be his/her family members for whom document formalities for transplant are limited
- For friends or distant relatives, quite a few other formalities are necessary for evaluation as donor
- As patient’s country is India then all documents and certificate proofs of the recipient and the donor’s relationship needs to be verified
Donor goes through the Following Tests:
- Blood Type Testing
- Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)