Neurology is that branch of medicine which is concerned with study & treatment of nervous system disorders. Nervous system is a sophisticated & complex system which regulates & coordinates activities of the body, including the brain. Nervous system has two major divisions, namely the central nervous system & the brain & spinal cord. Doctors specializing in neurology are known as neurologists. Neurologists treat disorders affecting the nerves, spinal cord & the brain. These disorders include demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system like multiple sclerosis & of the cerebrovascular diseases like stroke.
What do Neurologists do?
During neurological examinations, a neurologist will review the patients’ health history with special emphasis on present condition. Typically, examinations will include function of cranial nerves (including vision), coordination, reflex action, strength, sensation & mental status as well. Collection of this data will help the neurologist determine if the problem is clinically localized or dwells within the central nervous system. Localization of pathology is the key process which enables neurologists in developing differential diagnosis. Further tests may however be required to confirm diagnosis & arrive at therapy for appropriate management.
What is Neurosurgery?
Also known as neurological surgery, neurosurgery is a medical specialty which is concerned with diagnosis, surgical treatment, rehabilitation & prevention of disorders affecting any portion of the nervous system including extra-cranial cerebrovascular system, peripheral nerves, spinal cord & the brain.
Common Types of Neurosurgeries
Awake Brain Surgery is also known as Awake Craniotomy. This is a type of procedure which is performed upon a brain while the patient is alert & awake. Awake brain surgery is utilized in treatment of some neurological conditions like epileptic seizures or some brain tumors. When tumors or areas of brain where seizures occur (epileptic focus) are near parts of brain which control vision, speech or movement may require the patient to be awake during surgery. Neurosurgeons may ask patients questions & monitor activity in brain as patients respond during awake brain surgery. Patient responses eventually help the neurosurgeon ensure that they are treating the correct areas of the brain which require surgical intervention. This procedure also lowers risk of damage to functional areas of brain which could affect speech, movement or vision of the patient.
Also known as GammaKnife Radiosurgery, this is a type of radiation therapy which is used for treating vascular malformations, tumors & other abnormalities of brain. GammaKnife Radiosurgery is like other types of stereotactic radiosurgery which do not involve surgery in the traditional sense since it does not require any incisions for operation. Instead, GammaKnife Radiosurgery utilizes special equipment in order to precisely focus about 200 tiny beams of radiation on tumors & other targets with sub-millimeter accuracy. Though each beam of radiation has little effect on brain tissue which it passes through, there is a strong dose of radiation which is delivered at the site where beams eventually meet. Precision of brain stereotactic radiosurgery results in minimal amount of damage to healthy tissues which surround the target. Moreover, GammaKnife Radiosurgery is generally a one-time procedure which is completed in a single day.
This is a surgical procedure which opens clogged arteries in order to treat or prevent stroke. Carotid arteries are located on either side of the neck & are the main arteries which supply blood to the brain. This procedure involves temporarily inserting & inflating a tiny balloon to the site where the carotid artery is clogged, in order to widen the artery passage. Most often Carotid Angioplasty is combined with stent placement. Stent is a small metal coil which helps prop the artery open & decreases chances of it narrowing at this site once again. Carotid angioplasty & stent placement may be utilized when traditional carotid artery surgery is either not feasible or is too risky for the patient.
This is a procedure which is meant to treat carotid artery disease. Carotid artery disease generally occurs when waxy, fatty deposits build up within the carotid artery. Carotid arteries are blood vessels which are located on either sides of the neck & supply blood to the brain. Atherosclerosis or buildup of plaques may sometimes restrict blood flow to brain. Removing these plaques which is causing narrowing in artery can improve blood flow in the artery & reduce risk of stroke. Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy receive local or general anesthesia during the procedure. Neurosurgeons will make an incision along the front of neck & open up the carotid artery to remove plaques which are clogging the artery. Neurosurgeon will then repair the artery with stitches or patches made with a vein or patch grafts made of artificial materials. Another technique called Eversion Carotid Endarterectomy is sometimes utilized which involves cutting the carotid artery & turning it inside out to remove plaque. Subsequently the neurosurgeon will then reattach the carotid artery. Carotid endarterectomy is usually recommended by doctors for patients having more than 60 percent blockage in the artery, although they may or may not be experiencing symptoms. Neurosurgeons will evaluate the condition of the patient first in order to determine whether they are good candidates for carotid endarterectomy.
Computer-assisted brain surgery with Travcure Medical Tourism utilizes imaging technologies like computerized tomography (CT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraoperative MRI & positron emission tomography (PET) scans so as to create a 3D model of brain. This method allows neurosurgeons plan the safest way to treat neurologic conditions. Moreover, computer system precisely guides the neurosurgeon to areas of brain requiring treatment during surgery. Quite often, the neurosurgeon may combine computer-assisted surgery with awake brain surgery if required. Robot-assisted surgery may also involve deep brain stimulation for patients having epilepsy. Neurosurgeons associated with Travcure often utilize computer-assisted techniques for treating arteriovenous malformations, brain tumors & other lesions with precisely focused beams of radiation by using stereotactic radiosurgery.
This surgical procedure involves implanting electrodes within certain areas of brain in order to produce electrical impulses which regulate abnormal impulses. Moreover, these electrical impulses can also affect certain brain cells & their chemical formations. Amount of stimulation which is required in individual cases is controlled by a pacemaker-like device which is planted under the skin of the patient in the upper chest. Wire leads travel under skin to connect the device to electrodes in brain. Deep brain stimulation is utilized to treat a number of neurological conditions like essential tremor, epilepsy, dystonia, Parkinson’s disease, Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder & chronic pain. DBS is also being studied as experimental treatment for dementia, addiction, stroke recovery & major depression. Clinical trials are also available for patients requiring deep brain stimulation.
Surgery for epilepsy is a medical procedure which involves removing an area of the brain where seizures are found to originate. This works best for people having seizures which always originate from the same place in brain. However, epilepsy surgery is considered only after the patient has tried at least two anti-seizure drugs without any success. When these two appropriate drugs have failed, it is highly unlikely that any of the other anti-epileptic drugs would help the patient.
Neurosurgeons use a variety of techniques for operating with lesser damage to body than open surgery in minimally invasive surgery procedure. Minimally invasive surgery is generally associated with lesser pain, shorter stay at the hospital & fewer complications as well. Laparoscopy surgery is performed through one or more small incisions, which use small tubes & tiny cameras & special surgical instruments, was the first type of minimally invasive surgical intervention that was developed. Another kind of minimally invasive surgery is robotic surgery which provides a magnified 3D view of the surgical site to neurosurgeons & helps them operate with flexibility, precision & total control. Moreover, there are continual innovations in minimally invasive surgery procedures which make it beneficial for patients with a wide range of neurological conditions. Patients needing Neurosurgery & thinking that they may be good candidates must talk to the doctors for availing this approach.
Neurological Conditions Treated with Neurosurgery
This is an uncommon, benign (noncancerous) & normally slow-growing tumor which develops on the main nerve leading from inner ear to brain. Pressure from acoustic neuroma can cause unsteadiness, ringing in ears & hearing loss as branches of this main nerve directly influences hearing & balance. Acoustic neuroma is also known as vestibular schwannoma & usually grows very slowly or not at all in some cases. However, it is also found to grow rapidly & become large to press against brain & interfere in vital functions in some cases. Acoustic neuroma treatments generally include regular monitoring, radiation therapy & surgical removal.
Alzheimer’s disease basically is a neurological disorder where death of brain cells is found to cause cognitive decline & memory loss. This is a neurodegenerative type of dementia which starts mild but gets worse progressively. Total brain size in Alzheimer’s disease patients are found to shrink over time with brain tissue having reduced nerve cells & connections. However, these cannot be seen or tested in a living brain, but autopsies have shown tiny inclusions in nerve tissue which are called plaques & tangles. Plaques are generally found between dying brain cells from a build-up of protein called beta-amyloid. Tangles are found in brain neurons as a result of another protein called tau.
Problems with balance are conditions which make a person dizzy or unsteady. Patients might feel they are moving, spinning or floating even when they are standing, sitting or floating. When they are walking, they might suddenly feel unsteady or tip over. There are several body systems involved, including visions, joints, bones, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, heart, & balance organ in inner ear, which must work normally, for a person to maintain balance. When these symptoms are unsynchronized & do not function well does a person experience problems with balance. There are several medical conditions which can cause problems with balance. However, it is issued with the vestibular system (balance end-organ in inner ear) that result in most balance problems.
Peripheral nerves generally link the brain & spinal cord to all parts of the body. These nerves help in controlling muscles so that people can swallow, blink, pick things, walk & perform other activities. There are many types of nerve tumors which occur, though the cause of most is unknown, there are quite a few which are hereditary. However, most of these tumors are not cancerous, but they can lead to loss of muscle control due to nerve damage. This is why it is important to see the doctor when a person is experiencing numbness, tingling, pain or an unusual lump.
Brachial plexus is a network of nerves which sends signals from spine to shoulders, arms & hands. Brachial plexus injury occurs when nerves get, compressed, stretched or in many serious cases rip apart or tear away from spinal cord. Minor brachial plexus injuries are known as burners or stingers & are common in contact sports like football. Babies also sometimes sustain brachial plexus injuries at the time of birth. Other conditions which affect brachial plexus include inflammation or tumors. Most severe brachial plexus injuries are found to result from automobile or motorcycle accidents. Severe brachial plexus injuries can at times leave the arm paralyzed along with loss of sensation & function. Surgical procedures which can help restore function involve muscle transfers, nerve transfers or nerve grafts.
A brain aneurysm is ballooning or a bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. This usually looks like a berry hanging on a stem. Moreover, brain aneurysms can rupture or leak so as to cause bleeding inside the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). Most often ruptured brain aneurysms are found to occur in space in-between brain & thin tissues covering the brain. This kind of hemorrhagic strokes is known as subarachnoid hemorrhage. Ruptured aneurysms quickly turn life-threatening & therefore require prompt medical attention. Most of the brain aneurysms, however, do not rupture or create any kind of health problems or cause symptoms. This type of brain aneurysms is most often detected during tests conducted for other medical conditions. Nevertheless, treatment for unruptured brain aneurysms can be appropriate in some cases & may even be able to prevent a rupture in future.
Brain AVM or arteriovenous malformation is a tangle of abnormal blood vessels which connect arteries & veins in the brain. These arteries are responsible for taking oxygen-rich blood from heart to brain while veins carry oxygen-depleted blood back to the heart & lungs. Brain AVM is found to disrupt this vital process & function. Although AVMs can develop anywhere in the body, they most often occur in the brain or spine. However, AVMs are quite rare & affect less than one percent of the general population. Moreover, the cause of AVMs is still not clear. Though most people are born with AVMs, they can also occasionally form later in life & are rarely passed down genetically among families. Symptoms like headaches & seizures are experienced by some brain AVM patients. AVMs are generally found during brain scans for other health issues or after rupture of blood vessels which has caused hemorrhage or bleeding in the brain. Nevertheless, once diagnosed brain AVMs can successfully be treated so as to prevent complications like brain stroke or damage to the brain.
Brain tumors are masses or growth of abnormal brain cells located inside or close to the brain. There are several different ty of brain tumors which are found. While some of these brain tumors are benign (noncancerous) there are other brain tumors which are malignant (cancerous). Primary brain tumors are those which begin in the brain. Secondary or metastatic brain tumors are those which begin in other areas of the body & subsequently spread to the brain. How fast these brain tumors grow can also greatly vary. Location & growth rate of brain tumor usually determines how it will be affecting the functioning of the nervous system. Moreover, treatment options for brain tumors usually depend upon the size, location & type of brain tumor involved.
This disease occurs when plaques or fatty deposits clog blood vessels delivering blood to head & brain (carotid arteries). These blockages increase the risk of stroke & which is a medical emergency occurring when the blood supply to the brain is seriously reduced or interrupted. A stroke generally deprives the brain of essential oxygen & therefore within minutes brain cells begin to die. Stroke is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death or leading cause of permanent disability in the United States. Carotid artery disease is found to develop slowly. First signs & symptoms of this condition may be a stroke of transient ischemic attack (TIA). Transient ischemic attack is a temporary shortage of blood flow to the brain. A combination of changes in lifestyle, medications & at times surgical intervention is usually required as treatment of carotid artery disease.
These are abnormally formed blood vessels mimicking the appearance of a small mulberry. Although cavernous malformations can occur anywhere in the body, they usually create problems when they are found in the spinal cord or brain. At times these formations can be hereditary & sometimes they may occur later on their own. Quite often these malformations leak & lead to hemorrhage causing bleeding in the brain. Neurological symptoms caused by this typically depend upon the location of cavernous malformation within the nervous system. Symptoms generated by this condition include a severe headache, changes in vision, unsteadiness, difficulty in understanding others, numbness, weakness & difficulty in speaking. Seizures can also occur in some cases & repeat hemorrhages can also occur soon after initial hemorrhage or much later in some cases. It is also possible that repeat hemorrhage may never occur in cavernous malformations.
This is a disorder of movement, posture or of muscle tone which is caused by damage occurring to an immature & developing brain most often prior to birth. Signs & symptoms of cerebral palsy usually appear during infancy or preschool period of time. Cerebral palsy generally causes impaired movement which is associated with abnormal reflexes, unsteady walking, involuntary movements, abnormal posture, rigidity or floppiness of limbs & trunk or any combination of these. Cerebral palsy patients also have problems with swallowing & eye muscle balance which makes it difficult for the eyes to focus on the same object. People with cerebral palsy may often suffer from reduced range of motion at various joints of the body due to muscle stiffness. Effects of cerebral palsy on functional abilities greatly vary. While some people with cerebral palsy can walk there are others who cannot. Some people with cerebral palsy display normal or near-normal intellectual capacity, there are many others having intellectual disabilities. Deafness, blindness or epilepsy may also be present in cerebral palsy patients.
Chiari malformation is basically a condition in which brain tissue is found to extend into the spinal canal. This occurs when part of the skull is abnormally misshapen or small & pressing upon the brain & forcing it downwards. Chiari malformation is, however, uncommon but increasing use of imaging studies has led to a more frequent diagnosis of this condition. Chiari malformation is categorized by doctors into three types depending upon the anatomy of brain tissue which is displaced into the spinal canal & whether developmental abnormalities of spine or brain are present along with. Type I Chiari malformation develops as brain & skull are growing after birth. Signs & symptoms, as a result, may not occur until late into childhood or adulthood. Chiari malformation pediatric forms are type II & type III which are congenital & therefore present at birth. Treatment of Chiari malformation, however, depends upon the symptoms, form & severity of the condition. Nevertheless, regular monitoring, medications & surgical intervention are regular treatment options, but in some cases, treatment may not be essential.
Cluster headaches generally occur in clusters or cyclical patterns. These are some of the most painful types of headaches. A cluster headache commonly awakens patients in the middle of the night with intense pain generally in & around one eye on any one side of the head. A cluster headache brings bouts of frequent attacks which are known as cluster periods & which usually last from weeks to months & followed by remission periods when headaches stop. No headaches occur during remission periods & these can last for months & sometimes years. However, fortunately, Cluster headaches are not life-threatening & are rare as well. Available treatment options for cluster headache attacks are able to make them shorter & less severe. Additionally, medications are also able to reduce the number of cluster headaches as well.
This is a rare type of benign (non-cancerous) brain tumor. Craniopharyngioma usually begins near the pituitary gland which secretes hormones controlling several body functions. Craniopharyngioma grows slowly, but it can affect the function of pituitary gland & other structures in the brain which is located nearby. Craniopharyngioma is found to occur at any age, but they most often occur in children & older adults as well.
This is a birth defect in which one or more fibrous joints between baby’s cranial sutures fuse or close prematurely before the brain is fully formed. However, the growth of bones continues while giving the head a misshapen appearance. Craniosynostosis usually involves fusion of single cranial suture, but can also involve more than one suture of the baby’s skull & which is then known as complex craniosynostosis. Moreover, in rare cases, craniosynostosis is found to be caused by syndromic craniosynostosis (genetic syndromes). Craniosynostosis Treatment involves surgery for correction of the shape of head & so to allow normal growth of the brain. Early diagnosis & treatment are essential to allow adequate space for the baby’s brain to grow & develop. Neurological damage is also found to occur in severe cases, but then, most babies have normal cognitive development & also achieve good cosmetic results as well following surgical intervention. However, early diagnosis & timely treatment hold the key to successful outcomes.
Cushing syndrome is found to occur when people are exposed to high levels of cortisol hormone for a long time. Also called hypercortisolism, Cushing syndrome may be caused by using oral corticosteroid medication. This condition is also found to occur when the body makes too much cortisol on its own. Too much of cortisol is found to produce some hallmark signs & symptoms of Cushing syndrome like a rounded face, a fatty hump between shoulders or purple stretch marks on the skin. Cushing syndrome is also found to result in bone loss, high blood pressure & sometimes Type 2 diabetes. Cushing syndrome treatments can, however, return production of body’s natural cortisol to normal & noticeably improve symptoms. Nevertheless, better chances of recovery depend upon the early beginning of treatments.
These are basically abnormal connections between arteries & the tough covering (dura) over brain or spinal cord & a draining vein. Abnormal passageways are found to occur between arteries & veins (arteriovenous fistulas) of the brain, spinal cord & other areas of the body.
This is a movement disorder in which muscles involuntarily contract so as to cause twisting or repetitive movements. Dystonia can affect any one part of the body (focal dystonia) or even two or more adjacent parts (segmental dystonia) or several parts of the body (general dystonia). These muscle spasms can either be mild or severe & may interfere with the normal performance of day-to-day activities. However, there is no cure for dystonia, but medications are often found to improve symptoms. Surgical interventions are sometimes utilized to regulate or disable nerves or certain areas of the brain in patients with severe dystonia.
It is a neurological disorder (central nervous system disorder) in which activity of the nerve cell in the brain gets disrupted so as to cause periods or seizures of unusual sensations, behavior & sometimes even loss of consciousness. Symptoms of seizures usually widely vary with some epilepsy patients simply staring blankly for a few seconds during a seizure to others repeatedly twitching their legs or arms. About 1 in every 26 people in the United States are found to develop seizure disorders. Almost 10 percent individuals maybe having a single unprovoked seizure. However, a single seizure does not mean that the individual is having epilepsy, but it requires at least two unprovoked seizures for diagnosis of Epilepsy. Nevertheless, even mild seizures require treatments since they can prove to be dangerous during activities like swimming or driving. For about 80 percent of cases of epilepsy, treatments with medications or at times surgery are able to effectively control seizures. Moreover, some children with epilepsy are also able to outgrow the condition with increasing age.
Essential tremor is also a neurological disorder causing rhythmic & involuntary shaking of the body. Although, these symptoms can affect any part of the body, trembling usually occurs in hands, especially when the patient is doing simple tasks like tying laces or drinking water from a glass. Usually, essential tremor is not a dangerous condition, but symptoms typically worsen over time & may also be severe in some people. Though essential tremor is sometimes confused with Parkinson’s disease, other conditions do not cause this condition. Essential tremor can affect people of all ages but is commonly found in people aged 40 years or more.
This is a rare type of cancer which begins in the upper part of the nasal cavity. This area where Esthesioneuroblastoma starts is separated from the brain by a bone containing tiny bones which allow nerves controlling smell (olfactory) to pass through them. Esthesioneuroblastoma is therefore also known as olfactory neuroblastoma. Esthesioneuroblastoma can occur in adults of any age, but generally, begin as a tumor in nasal cavity & can extend or grow into brain, eyes & sinus. Esthesioneuroblastoma patients can lose their sense of smell, experience difficulty in breathing through nostrils as tumors grow & have frequent nosebleeds. Esthesioneuroblastoma is also found to spread to lymph nodes in neck & parotid glands as well. Advanced cases of Esthesioneuroblastoma can also spread to other parts of the brain & the body, like bones, liver & lungs. Treatment of Esthesioneuroblastoma generally includes surgery & chemotherapy & radiation therapy are also often recommended along with.
Gliomas are a type of tumor which occurs in brain & spinal cord. Gliomas usually begin in the glial cells which are gluey supportive cells surrounding nerve cells & also help them function. There are 3 types of glial cells which can produce brain tumors. These gliomas are classified according to the type of glial cells that are involved in the tumor.
Types of Gliomas
- Astrocytomas – These include glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytoma & astrocytoma.
- Ependymomas – These include subependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma & anaplastic ependymoma.
- Oligodendrogliomas – These include anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma & oligodendroglioma.
Gliomas also affect brain function & can be life-threatening depending upon the location & rate of growth. Gliomas are considered as one of the most common types of primary brain tumors. Type of glioma usually determines the treatment plan & the prognosis of a case. Glioma treatment options generally include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy & experimental clinical trials as well.
This is a nervous system disorder where muscles on one side of the face twitch involuntarily. The hemifacial spasm can be caused by a tumor, facial nerve injury, any blood vessel touching a facial nerve or may not even have a cause in some cases.
This is an inherited disease which causes degeneration (progressive breakdown) of nerve cells in the brain. Having a broad impact on functional abilities of the patient as well, Huntington’s disease results in psychiatric, cognitive (thinking) & movement disorders. Most Huntington’s disease patients develop signs & symptoms during 30 – 40 years of age, but the onset of the disease may be either earlier or later in life. This condition is termed juvenile when disease onset starts before 20 years of age. This early onset usually results in quite a different presentation of signs & symptoms alongside faster progression of the disease. Although medications are available to help manage signs & symptoms of Huntington’s disease, this treatment is unable to prevent the behavioral, mental & physical decline which is associated with this condition.
This is generally buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within ventricles (cavities) deep within the brain. Excessive fluid in hydrocephalus puts pressure on the brain while increasing size of the ventricles. Normally, CSF flows through the ventricles so as to bathe the brain & the spinal column. The pressure of too much CSF which is associated with hydrocephalus can eventually damage brain tissues while causing a large spectrum of impairments in the functioning of the brain. Hydrocephalus is more common among infants & older adults, though it can occur at any age. Surgical intervention for hydrocephalus can, however, restore & maintain normal levels of CSF in the brain. Moreover, there are a variety of interventions which are often required for managing functional impairments & symptoms resulting from hydrocephalus.
This condition involves abnormally excessive sweating which is not necessarily related to exercise or high temperatures. Hyperhidrosis patients may sweat so much that it drips off their hands or soaks through their clothes. Hyperhidrosis can at times cause embarrassment or social anxiety besides disrupting normal daily activities. Treatment for hyperhidrosis generally involves prescription-strength antiperspirants on affected areas. It is also quite rare that an underlying cause may be found & treated. Persistent hyperhidrosis may require patients to try other therapies or different medications. For severe cases of hyperhidrosis, doctors may suggest surgery which is either meant to remove sweat glands or to disconnect nerves which are responsible for this overproduction of sweat.
These are abnormally enlarged veins found in the brain. The intracranial venous malformation is a type of blood vessel abnormality found in the brain or in the spinal cord.
These are a type of cancer which occurs in the protective lining of the nerves which extend from spinal cord into the body. Also known as Neurofibrosarcomas, malignant nerve sheath tumors can also occur anywhere else in the body. However, these most often occur in deep tissues of trunk, legs & arms. These tumors tend to cause weakness & pain within the affected area & may also form into a growing lump or mass. Malignant nerve sheath tumors typically occur more frequently among people with an inherited condition causing nerve tumors & also in people who have undergone radiation therapy for cancers. Nevertheless, most people with malignant nerve sheath tumors are having no risk factors for this disease. Typically treated with surgery, certain cases of malignant nerve sheath tumors are also recommended to chemotherapy & radiation therapy.
Meningiomas are tumors which arise from meninges. Meninges are membranes which surround the brain & spinal cord. However, most meningiomas are benign (noncancerous), though it is rare for meningioma to be malignant (cancerous). Moreover, some meningiomas are classified as atypical, which means that they are neither malignant nor benign, but something in between. Meningiomas are found to mostly occur among older women, but they also occur in males of any age including children. Nevertheless, meningiomas do not always require immediate treatment & cause no significant signs & symptoms & can be monitored over a period of time.
This is a rare genetic (hereditary) disorder which causes lipids (fatty substances) to build up inside the brain, peripheral nerves & spinal cord. This kind of buildup is usually caused due to a deficiency of an enzyme which helps in breaking down liquids. The nervous system & brain may progressively lose function with this disorder. Although rare, deficiency in another type of protein known as activator protein may also cause metachromatic leukodystrophy. There are four types of metachromatic leukodystrophies where each type occurs at different ages, but may also overlap in some cases. Each of these types of metachromatic leukodystrophies has different signs & symptoms as well. Age ranges for these types of metachromatic leukodystrophies include the following.
- The infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy occurs between birth & 12 years of age.
- A Late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy occurs between few months to 2 years of age.
- The juvenile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy occurs between 3 – 16 years of age.
- The adult form of metachromatic leukodystrophy occurs after 16 years of age.
This is a rare vascular (blood vessel) disorder which involves a ring of blood vessels located at the base of the brain (circle of Willis) & the distal (uppermost) segments of arteries blood to the brain. These progressively narrow to cause reduced blood flow to the brain. This condition may cause transient ischemic attack (ministroke), stroke or other associated symptoms. Moyamoya disease is usually found to affect children, but some adults may also have this condition. Moyamoya is usually found to occur in people from Japan & other Asian nations, but people from Europe, North America & other areas also have reported cases of moyamoya disease.
Known as MS, in short, multiple sclerosis is a potential disease of the central nervous system (brain & spinal cord). The immune system is found to attack the myelin (protective sheath) in MS, which covers the nerve fibers & causes problems with communication between brain & rest of the body. Multiple sclerosis can eventually cause nerves to deteriorate or become permanently damaged. Signs & symptoms of multiple sclerosis however widely vary & depend upon the amount of nerve damage affecting the nerves. Moreover, some people with severe multiple sclerosis may also lose the ability to independently walk or walk at all, while other MS patients may experience long periods of remission without experiencing any newer symptoms. However, there is no cure for MS & treatments can only help speed up recovery from attacks, modify the course of multiple sclerosis & manage symptoms as they appear.
This involves a quick & involuntary muscle jerk. Hiccups are also a form of myoclonus & so are sudden jerks or ‘sleep starts’ which patients may feel just before falling asleep. These are forms of myoclonus which occur in healthy people & rarely become a problem. Other types of myoclonus occur due to neurological disorders like epilepsy, reactions to medications or as a metabolic condition. Nevertheless, treating underlying causes can ideally help control myoclonus signs & symptoms. Moreover, in case cause of myoclonus is unknown or cannot be specifically treated, then treatments can focus upon reducing effects on the quality of life of patients.
Nasal & paranasal tumors are basically abnormal growths which begin in & around the passageways within the nasal cavity. Most nasal tumors usually begin within the nasal cavities, while paranasal tumors begin inside air-filled chambers around the nose called paranasal sinuses. Nasal or paranasal tumors can either be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Moreover, there are several types of nasal & paranasal tumors which exist & the type of tumor which patients have usually determined the best treatment plan for a patient.
This is a genetic disorder which causes tumors to form in nerve tissue. Neurofibromatosis Tumors can develop anywhere within the nervous system including nerves, spinal cord & brain. These tumors are usually diagnosed either in childhood or early adulthood. Although these tumors are usually benign (noncancerous), sometimes they can also become malignant (cancerous). Neurofibromatosis symptoms are often mild in nature. Risks & complications of neurofibromatosis commonly include hearing loss, severe pain, loss of vision, cardiovascular problems 9heart & blood vessel) & learning impairment. Treatment for neurofibromatosis aims at maximizing healthy growth & development & managing complications as soon as they arise. When neurofibromatosis causes large sized tumors or tumors which are pressing upon a nerve, surgery can usually help ease symptoms. Some patients may also benefit from other therapies like stereotactic radiosurgery or medicines which are meant to control pain.
This is a progressive disorder of the nervous system which affects movement. Beginning with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand, it develops gradually. Although tremor may be the most well-known sign of Parkinson’s disease, this disorder is also commonly found to cause slowing or stiffness of movement. The patients’ face may show little or no expression or the arms may not swing while walking in early stages of Parkinson’s disease. Speech may also become slurred or soft. Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease usually worsen over time as the condition progresses. However, Parkinson’s disease cannot be cured but medications can markedly improve symptoms. Nevertheless, doctors may still recommend surgery to regulate certain regions of the brain so as to improve symptoms in later stages.
Pediatric brain tumors are generally growths or masses of abnormal cells which occur in the brain or tissue & structures located nearby. There are several different types of pediatric brain tumors which exist, while some are benign (noncancerous) others are malignant (cancerous). Treatment & Prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on the type of tumor & its location within the brain. The extent of spread & age & general health of the child also influence outcomes. Moreover, since newer treatments & technologies are continually developing, there are many options which may be available at different points in the process of treatment.
Peripheral nerves normally link the brain & spinal cord to other parts of the body, like the skin & muscles. Since they are fragile, peripheral nerves can be easily damaged. Moreover, nerve injuries can also interfere with brain’s ability to effectively communicate with muscles & organs. People having injured one or more nerves in an accident or broken a bone may feel numbness or tingle in hands, arms, shoulders or legs. They may also experience tingling or numbness when nerves get compressed due to factors like diseases, tumors or narrow passageways. It is, therefore, important to seek medical care for peripheral nerve injury as soon as possible since nerve tissue can be effectively repaired. Nevertheless, early diagnosis & treatment can, however, prevent complications & save the patient from permanent damage.
These are masses which occur on or near a network of peripheral nerves linking the brain & spinal cord to other parts of the body. Peripheral nerve tumors may also occur anywhere in the body & can also affect the function of peripheral nerves. These tumors can be benign (noncancerous) peripheral nerve tumors or malignant (cancerous) peripheral nerve tumors, though benign are the most common ones to be found. Moreover, people with other conditions including schwannomatosis or neurofibromatosis are more likely to develop peripheral nerve tumors.
This is a result of damage to peripheral nerves which often cause pain, numbness & weakness usually in hands & feet. It can however also affect other parts of the body as well. The peripheral nervous system generally sends information from brain & central nervous system (spinal cord) to rest of the body. Peripheral neuropathy generally results from exposure to toxins, inherited causes, metabolic problems, infections & traumatic injuries. However, the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy is diabetes mellitus. Peripheral neuropathy patients usually describe this pain as tingling, burning or stabbing. In several cases, though, symptoms improve, especially when they are caused by a treatable condition. Moreover, medications can reduce pain of peripheral neuropathy.
These tumors are abnormal growths which develop in the pituitary gland. Some of these pituitary tumors result in producing too much of the hormones which normally regulate important functions of the human body, while some other pituitary tumors cause the gland to produce low levels of the hormone. However, most pituitary tumors are benign (noncancerous) growths known as adenomas. Adenomas remain in the pituitary gland or within surrounding tissues & do not spread to other parts of the body. There are numerous treatment options for pituitary tumors including the complete removal of the tumor, controlling growth & management of hormone levels with medications. Moreover, quite often doctors also recommend observation as part of the ‘wait & see’ approach.
This disorder is a part of a group of birth defects which are known as neural tube defects. The neural tube is the embryonic structure which eventually develops into the baby’s brain & spinal cord & the tissues enclosing them. The neural tube normally forms early in pregnancy & closes by the 28th day following conception. However, in children with spina bifida, a portion of the neural tube fails to develop & close properly & thereby cause defects in spinal cord & in bones of the spine. Moreover, spina bifida occurs in varying forms of severity. Whenever treatment for spina bifida becomes necessary, it is performed surgically even though this treatment method does not always resolve the problem completely.
Stroke is generally found to occur when the blood supply to some portion of the brain is either interrupted or severely reduced so as to deprive brain tissue of nutrients & essential oxygen. In such a condition, brain cells begin to die within minutes. Therefore, stroke invariably is a medical emergency & prompt treatment is crucial. Early action can, however, minimize damage to brain & potential complications of a stroke. The good news is this that strokes can be effectively treated & prevented & fewer people now die of stroke than they did 15 years ago.
This is a condition where bleeding is observed in space between the brain & the membrane surrounding brain (subarachnoid space). Subarachnoid hemorrhage usually results from rupture of some abnormal bulge in some blood vessel (a brain aneurysm) in the brain. An abnormal tangle of blood vessels (arteriovenous malformation) in brain, trauma or other events can also cause bleeding at times. Subarachnoid hemorrhage can lead to permanent brain damage or even death if it is not treated in time.
This is a disorder which involves unwanted sounds (tics) or repetitive movements which cannot be easily controlled. Like for example, the Tourette syndrome patient may repeatedly blink eyes, shrug shoulders or blurt offensive words or unusual sounds. Tics typically show between 2 – 15 years of age with the average being around 6 years. Moreover, males are about 3 to 4 times more prone to develop Tourette syndrome than females. However, there is no cure for Tourette syndrome patients, treatments are still available. Moreover, several Tourette syndrome patients will not require treatment when symptoms are not a problem. Tics also often lessen or come under control after the child reaches teenage years.
This is a chronic & painful condition which affects the trigeminal nerve carrying sensation from face to the brain. Even mild stimulation of face, like from putting makeup or brushing teeth can trigger jolts of excruciating pain in trigeminal neuralgia patients. Patients may though initially experience short & mild attacks. This condition can progress & cause longer & more frequent bouts of unbearable searing pain. Affecting women more often than men, trigeminal neuralgia is generally found to occur in people who are older than 50 years of age. Since there are a number of treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia, it does not necessarily mean that the patient is doomed to a life filled with pain. Doctors efficiently use medications, injections & surgery for effectively managing trigeminal neuralgia.
Medical Tourism in India for Neurosurgery Treatments
People with brain tumor generally undergo brain cancer surgery. The main purpose of this surgical procedure is to confirm abnormality seen as tumor during tests & to remove them. If this is not possible, a neurosurgeon may take a biopsy of the tumor to identify the type. In quite a few benign tumor cases, symptoms are often completely cured by surgical removal of the tumor. Brain cancer surgery patients may, in fact, undergo several treatments & procedures prior to actual surgical intervention. India is a specialist destination for affordable neurosurgery procedures. Neurology treatment costs in India are low & just a fraction of what you would normally pay in the western developed countries. Offering high-tech medical solutions to a large variety of healthcare problems, it is no wonder that India is one of the most favored global health care destinations for neurology today. Other common neurology procedures which are available in India include craniosynostosis surgery, brain tumor surgery, percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy surgery, transsphenoidal surgery & variety of head injuries treatments. Brain tumor surgery cost in India is down-to-earth & normally affordable by common man across the world.
Neurosurgery with Travcure Medical Tourism
Travcure medical tourism is a globally reputed healthcare tourism company catering to international patients willing to cross borders in pursuit of excellent & affordable medical procedures. Travcure is associated with a number of premier healthcare facilities across the world including hospitals in Turkey, Germany, United Arab Emirates & India so as to fulfill aspirations of international patients. Seamless services offered by Travcure are patient-centric & cover every detail of your medical journey as to enable you to access a hassle-free journey to good health. Neurosurgery with Travcure is the best one can expect, both in terms of quality & affordability. This could be the perfect alternative solution people across the world are seeking to overcome rising cost of healthcare within their homeland.